The voice that tells the story The voice that is heard when reading the passage May belong to a fictional character or to the writers themselves
The time and the place of the piece; the context that prompted the writing The "larger idea" which swirls around the broad issue.There is also the immediate occasion: an event or situation that catches the writer's attention and triggers a response.
The group of readers to whom this piece is directed The audience intended to be addressed by the piece.It may be one person or a specific group.
The reason behind the text Should consider the purpose of the text in order to develop the thesis or the argument and its logic. The reason why the auther wrote the piece and why readers should read it.
Students should be able to state the subject in a few words or phrases The main topic the piece - helps to focus throughout the writing process.
The attitude of the author Conveys the speaker's attitude and thus helps to impart meaning through tone of voice. Tone is one of the elements of the piece that extend meaning beyond the literal.
The General History of Virginia
Trevor B., James M., Daniyal M.
Born around 1579 in England
Moved to America to help govern Jamestown
Worked with President Ratcliffe to help govern the barter of food from the native tribes
The General History of Virginia is written in first person yet he refers to himself in the third person
Does this to inflate his personal legacy
". . . himself [Smith] always bearing the great task for his own share, so that in short time he provided most of them lodgings, neglecting any for himself" (Smith 96).
Also has the effect of perhaps making his historical recounting seem more credible
Jamestown is in a state of peril
Ships had gone back to England to get food and the people of Jamestown were left hungry
Except for a period of time after a flood where food was abundant
Details the events after the ships' departure
Intended audience consists of those who are interested in the history of Virginia
Primarily interested in the origins of Jamestown
Horrors the original settlers endured
Bias in his favor which limits the historical accuracy of the facts present
Inflate his legacy and improve his reputation
It is speculated that not all of the events detailed in The General History of Virginia actually happened (such as the story with Pocohontas may be exaggerated)
Complain about the hardships he faced in Virginia
Not a reliable narrator
Talks about how he was infallible while others were selfish
Puts Indians in bad light
"Powhatan more like a devil than a man, with some two hundred more as black as himself" (Smith 98)
John Smith's version of the history of Virginia
More accurately, his version of the events surrounding the origin of Jamestown
Slightly skewed version due to John Smith's bias
Misery the original settlers endured
"Fifty in this time we buried; the rest seeing the President's projects to escape these miseries..." (Smith 96)
Complaining about hardships of life in Jamestown
"Barley boiled with water for a man a day, and this, having fried for twenty-six weeks in the ship's hold, contained as many worms as grains" (Smith 94)
"With this lodging and diet, our extreme toil in bearing and planting palisades so strained and bruised us" (Smith 94)
Putting Powhatan in bad light for possible mistreatment but highly exaggerated
"...as many as could, laid hands on him, dragged [Smith] to [Powhatan], and thereon laid his head and being ready with their clubs to beat out his brains" (Smith 98)
English notions about contemporary lifestyle vs Native American lifestyle
"...brought him a bunch of feathers, instead of a towel, to dry them" (Smith 98)
Indicating how different the English way of life (drying with a towel) was when compared with the Native American way of life (feathers)
Smith, John. "The General History of Virginia." The General History of Virginia. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Rpt. in Holt McDougal Literature Common Core Student Edition Grade 11 American Literature 2012. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Print.